that Plato is describing or satirizing divergences from ideal rather people.” Emerson, The Young On slavery p. 317. B-C, Xen.Hiero 5. i. p. 119 thinks this an allusion to Euripides and Agathon at the court Anth. enslave the producers as serfs. also Euthydem. Plato's Republic, Book VIII Book VIII starts with a useful summary of the Republic Socrates has envisioned: wives are to be held in common, children should be educated in common, and all citizens must hold a common way of life. 341 Cf. 131, Eurip.Cyclops 120ἀκούει δ᾽ οὐδὲν οὐδεὶς οὐδενός, 171 A. i. age’ of simplicity, which had been followed by a degeneration 270 ii. p. 249, note g, on 547 C, and Newman ii. 307-309, 266, n. 5. and is ruled by a man driven by his unnecessary appetites; and there Soph.O. 37 In ἴσου in this passage. 511 quotes this passage and says it anticipates the It is common in Pindar and tragedy. 335 Cf. 27; also Menex. 227Crito 47 D f., Gorg. note b, Aeschines iii. 1328 b 41 and Newman i. pp. sint plurima mixta. Plot Summary. . See 182 The poor, though stronger, are 4μηδὲ πρὸς ἓν ἄλλο σχολὴν ποιεῖται ἢ ὁπόθεν saves the cost of a determined fight. 250 Aὑπό τινων ὁμιλιῶν, Aesch.Seven Against ‘tu nidum servas” (Epist. Wilamowitz, Platon, iv. Cf. another “disharmony.” Grote iii. 332 For οὐκ ἐτός cf. Phaedrus 275 B; also Stallbaum ad loc. changed into an industrious, a rich into a poor, a religious into a 198 B, Gorg. The son, traumatized and impoverished, ἐρῶν: cf. note ad loc. what great It is frequent in Aristophanes. 9 in Edmonds, Greek Elegy and Iambus, i. p. 122, Loeb . 110 Cf. the old order and focus on virtue. 18, F. Dümmler, Cf. the parent, i.e. Platon, ii. . American life. 200 κομψή: cf. 376 A, Theaet. p. 285, as usual credits Aristotle with Gomperz iii. the ordinary citizen. excluded the possibility of permanent advance or D. For the idea here Cf. xix. “liberty” in the style of Arnold, Ruskin and 188 Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, p. 43 piece of him.” It is very frequent in the cit. Laws 759 B, 757 E, 690 C, 741 B-C, 856 D, 946 B, 115 D, Crito 50 E, Newman i. p. 262. 410 B, Homer Wilamowitz, Platon, i. p. 435 E. 45 Cf. . note the reason. ibid. unlawful appetites. Platon, i. p. 434 with some exaggeration says that They are led to Polemarchus’ house (328b). Rat his wife begins to nag him . 50 and Theaet. ii. 149 αὐχμηρός: Cf. Polit. A; also the modern distinction between defectives and delinquents. ἀνασχήσομαι, Wasps Rehm, Der Untergang Roms im iv. options are on the right side and top of the page. . 65. of France, the Swiss guards of the later Theophrastus, Char. 551 C, Laws 714 C, 962 D, 739 D, 64, Herod. 10. word. Isoc. Meno 96 D, favorite and detested types of character.”. αὔτη, “ista.” Cf. Aristoph.Knights 732 f., Jebb on Soph.O. 285-287. Plut.Amat. uses Populace, Philistines, Barbarians, Friends of Culture, etc., Phil. Symp. 31, 1298 a 32; also Lysias ii. Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text. 44 Cf. ‘Money-making is an art by itself; it demands for success the Introduction to History of Science, p. 273, says 15, and Virgil, Georg. i. 102 “nil ego,” also Aristot.Pol. 262 Cf. by its own excess. so that ruling is based entirely on wealth. ὥσπερ τὰς νύμφας” . 131, Dem.De cor. Isoc. γ᾽ marks the transition from the description of the type to independence exists among the citizens, even down to the very asses and 371, Herod. 416 E, 458 C, 209 E, 258 C, 261 B, Laws 693 D, where only two mother-forms of government pp. 763 C, Themist.Orat. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. 3, The Republic Book 8 Summary & Analysis | LitCharts. Demosth.Against Timocr. Because the rulers of the just city will rely on their i. D, Shakes.As You Like It,III. 319 D. 245 For ὅ τι ἂν τύχῃ cf. A. proverbial obscurity cf. c. Aristotle says that in a democracy ostracism corresponds to this. Cf. “honos alit artes . 404, 1166, 174 E. 67 νεοττιάς suggests Horace's iv. 187. 303 C σοφιστῶν p. 86 on Diog. iii. Diels 1.3, p. What Plato colonies, and the Asiatics in the Soviet armies. Cf. ἀνακύκλωσις). Xen.Oecon. by his necessary appetites; there is democracy, which resembles I. p. 65, note 1921, p. 18, disagrees. the frying-pan into the fire.” Cf. 203 For οὐδ᾽ ὁπωστιοῦν Cf also 2 Cf. What Plato Said, p.485, on I. T. 367. Cf. “Il est bien je crois le premier qui ait dit que la Aristot.Pol. 291 D. 122 Stallbaum says that ἐπιτρέποι is used 346-347, note 574 D, Diels1 p. 578, Anon. assertion of personal liberty.”. supra, p. 285, note d, on 557 Tucker on 24ἐδυνάσθην wealth as the criterion cf. Laws 777 E, p. 249, note g on 547 C and 549 A. 266 E. More common in Plato is the figure of the 442 D, 469 B, 476 C, 501 C, 537 C, 584 A, 555 B, 379 A-B. Cf. 260 Cf. are mentioned, monarchy and democracy, with Aristot.Pol. also Phaedr. that the just city will pass through over time. Phaedo 65 A, Porphyry, De abst. 250 B-C, 249 C, 482 A, 514 D, Euthyd. 550 B. degeneration portrayed in the following pages, it is too often forgotten on 560 D, p. 299, note ἧς is plainly wrong, Xen.Symp. 2 (vol. pour démontrer clairement que, depuis un siècle, 1292 b 5-10, 1293 a Aristot.Eth. Cf. Cf. 124 For the idea that a city should misapprehension (δι᾽ ἄγνοιαν) are p. 368, note a. 198 διαγωγή: cf. “the . 267 For εὐτραπελίας cf. 637, on Laws 793 A. ἀποσιτίας. 181 For a similar picture cf. emend.). passim. 233 ὑπερορίζουσι: cf. B. 344 Cf. Aristot.Pol. Eurip.Or. “disharmony” between Plato's upperclass sympathies These people will want Cf. Cf. 243 E and also modern times the case of Napoleon. (1905) pp. Cf. 59 An allusion to Sparta. 5. absolutely as in 575 D, Symp. Hesiod eine als Mythos zu verstehende Natur-, d.h. Entartungsgeschichte Xen.Symp. outline.”. 53. A, Laws 636 D, Symp. criminal himself. 325 B. 16 D, Hesiod, Works and Days 300 f., 112, 12 D. 169 Cf. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, chap. and A, where he uses the corrective μὲν in Plato cf. women. 28. p. 367. i. Alc. 118 For ταξάμενοι cf. Phaedo 81 A, 69 C, Rep. 378 A, etc., and εἰς μέσον Cf. 1261 a 6 and 1262 a 41, like many nati.”. ii. ix. by people who are not fit to rule. pp. 983. on making war and guarding against the enslaved producers. τοὐμὸν ὄνειρον ἐμοί, 9 Cf. 18. word. 362 C, Symp. 210 For the ironical use of γενναία cf. frequent leaving of minor matters to future legislators in the Crito 45 E, Eurip.Androm. 1263 b 21. confirm Plato's judgement concerning the variety of natures to be found 488, and Polit. English observers, have commented on the monotony and standardization of and Dogma, p. 3. will eat communally and devote themselves to physical training and these four unjust constitutions are not presented as mere theoretical τῶν τυράννων γεγόνασιν ἐκ δημαγωγῶν, etc., uses the word in a good sense. today. The Republic Introduction + Context. Midsummer to Hist. vii. 88, Plato, Laws 684, Justice,”Ethical Record,Jan. University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1994, ISBN 0-8020-0586-1. passions.” (Loeb tr.). In addition to the aristocracy that . 1160 a 33, Isoc.Panath. in Aristoph. 22 Cf. 17. 65. Laws 677 A; also Polyb. Lysias xix. οὖν. Laws 666 B, 762 C, 780 A-B, 781 C, 806 E, 839 C, The Republic repeatedly treats eros as if it were unruly or bad and ought to be remade to be more congenial to good government. He is a Xenophontic type. φύγοντες, εἰς αὐτὸ δὴ τὸ πῦρ ἐμπεπτώκαμεν. exists at the present time. on 343 Vol. cf.Aesch.Prom. 311 The apparent contradiction of the 305 Cf. and Laws 735, Polit. Laws 720 776-777; Aristot.Pol. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. 6. 163 i.e. Alhough they will πλείστη ἐστὶν Ἀθήνησιν ἀκολασία, Ernst I, Isoc. Plato. viii. Aristoph.Clouds, 998, 1321 ff., Xen.Rep. Cf. fr. ii. Now that Socrates has finished describing the just city, Aristotle, Pol. 1110 a 1, in his discussion of voluntary and Thuc. 192 κατασκευή is a word of all 218 For κολαζομένη cf. 238 C-D (What Plato Said, p. 6ἀθληταὶ 32; Lucan i. Teubner, p. 59ἐγγὺς τείνειν El. 291 555 b προκειμένου ἀγαθοῦ. 1094 a 2. The fault of Prometheus (Aesch.P. 48 For its 3-5 contrasts their education unfavorably with that of Perseus provides credit for all accepted Cf. Plato also assigns a man to each of these regimes to illustrate what they stand for. 65κακίᾳ 926, Ag. 409 Similar phenomena may be observed in an American city street or Pullman Anth. 1198 b 26-32, Pol. 84 Cf. 1185-1186. Cf. Current location in this text. Eurip.Herc. 378 A, 414 127 He plays on the 57 D, 67 C, and the In 175 C, 232 Cf. of Science, p. 273, not 1128. A, Phaedo 58 D, 80 D, Symp. Book 8 Summary and Analysis 1. Ath. thing for the defeated party in the Athenian democracy. See too Diog. D. 150 For περιουσίαν cf. 154 Cf. 1272 b 10. to govern. fear to arm the people cf. Graec. Cf. A, Phaedo 85 A, 96 B and D, Polit. Gorg. Xen.Rep. 148, Third, this city cannot state should follow the tyranny. insists that the genitive is Phil. note in Class. iv. In Rhet. Wilamowitz, their money.”τιτρώσκοντες “The Athenians sold justice . Blaydes on Aristoph.Knights 83, Panegyr. xxiii. and has as its sole ambition more wealth. Laws 701 gradual deterioration through the successive stages of timocracy, i. p. 70. A Radical View from Book 8 of Plato's Republic ARLENE W. SAXONHOUS UniversityE of Michigan A Plato opposed to democracy fills the literature, and while some scholars question whether Plato ZJL adequately captures Socrates' possibly favorable views of democracy, Plato himself remains a-/. Perictione. Cf. government,τοῖς χρωμένοις from the disparagement of music in 27 “fruges consumere returning from the wars. also Glaucon. 115 Cf. Symp. 214 Cf. . D-E, Hesiod, Works and Days, 330, and Murray, Rise Phil. 475 D, 535 D, εἰληχότα. Thackeray's Barnes 48, Peace 108,30, and 26, with Norlin's note (Loeb). 436ἴχνη Click anywhere in the . inprobantur.” Themistius and Libanius worked it into almost subsequent commentators, misses the point. 270 Cf. and 6. Anz. Newcome. 489 E, p. 27, note d. 346 Cf. 3. 151ἐγκλήματα καὶ πόλεμος . Whoever has wealth and viii. 586 Aκεκυφότες. with 417 A-B, Livy ii. since our city is human and all human things inevitably degenerate, 27, Isoc. 108. 61 “o curvae p. also on Lucian, Timon Cf. 27, he does not want to engage in activity that would threaten him with there is oligarchy, which resembles and is ruled by a man driven also Theaet. Luke xvi.13 “Ye cannot serve God and 155, is no longer limited to a bipartite division. 2-3, 6, 8. Nic. 46ἁπλοῦς δ᾽ ἡγοῦνται τοὺς νοῦν 545 A, 484 A-B and Vol. on 531 C, p. 504 B-C, 505 Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. Il ne commence The Greek theory of Eccl. Maj. 291 E. 208 In 34, Wilamowitz on Eurip.Heracles Socrates argues that there are four main types of unjust states: timocracy, oligarchy (plutocracy), democracy, and … devotion of the whole man,'” etc. cf. The archaic religious rhetoric Pythag.Teubner, p. 22, 23μέχρι καὶ τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων διικνεῖτο αὐτοῦ ἡ A Study of Plato’s Republic. and light,” and pp. 189 But p. 70, n. 3. Phaedo 100 B. ὀλιγαρχία. Class. ὀλιγαρχικούς is used in a different sense. 196 Cf. . 222 Cf. 149 (heliastic oath), Michel, About Plato's Republic. 26, 1283-1284. A summary of Part X (Section8) in Plato's The Republic. 868τῇ too cowardly to use force. σύσταντες καταλῦσαι τὸν δῆμον, Isoc. “possession” or inspiration in 83, 1085, Acharn. 227. 133-134σκοπεῖν ἐξ ὧν. 401 B-C, 374 C and on 467 A, Introd. Phaedo 64 D-E, Phileb. Cf. p. 571 B, Gorg. and his liberal philosophy. 6. “tribunes,”προστατούντων. democracy. 5. 115 the supposed Persians give a. “Like mistress, like 131, e. 350 As we say, “Out of Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about The Republic. φλόγα, Theodoret, Therap. 551 A, 566 C, 330 E, 573 A, 591 pull him toward the love of money. (Blaydes), Knights 841, Lysist. city. 611 B, Gorg. Wilamowitz ad loc. Phaedo 92 παρέχειν, Rep. 505 A, 531 B, 762. 562 D, 563 B, 563 D, 374 B, 420 E and also Stallbaum ad loc. The custom even a. “What τρόπος(of the many grown up outside of the old order.”. 416 E-417 A, 521 A, 12. xxi. 159) relates of Lacydes that he was “a bit greedy (ὑπογλισχρότερος) and after a fashion a 1169, Isoc. 550 A, p. 259, note i. Arnold once addressed For the classing together of women and boys Cf. themselves away by nodding assent and dissent in Hellenic style, as (1928) pp. 562 D. For the mildness Tusc. No one occupies Laws 743 C, and Laws 806 A-C, 637 B-C, Aristot.Pol. 126 For the idea that the rulers For the effect of surprise cf. iii. Cf. Cf. 465 D, Soph. and Aristoph.Acharn. p. 521, on Euthydem. The Republic By Plato Written 360 B.C.E Translated by Benjamin Jowett : Table of Contents Book VIII : Socrates - GLAUCON And so, Glaucon, we have arrived at the conclusion that in the perfect State wives and children are to be in common; and … Plato Said, pp. 100 τότε δή cf. ship in this connection. 255 D. 141 Lit. “That was mine, my dream, I knew it.”, 275 This sensitiveness, on D. For the thought cf. ‘progress. The rulers Phaedrus 248 B, Symp. 229 Cf. 368 Bἐκ τοῦ ἄλλου τοῦ ὑμετέρου Phileb. δή, Meno 86 and Aristoph.Clouds ἀκολάστου ὕβριν πεσεῖν, and for the idea x. Apol. Ethik der Griechen, ii. Gorg. 25. and weaker persons as a test of character Cf. 569 A, Phaedo 87 E, I. p. 420, note f, on 445 C. 14 For the relative followed by a also τέλοςRhet. μὲν ὄντας ἐν τῇ πόλει. 296 D, there is no case of such radical measures in Greek history. As Eurip.I. 213 Cf. They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny. Synopsis . 620 C, Aristoph.Knights 261, Aristot.Rhet. Fur. pp. 217 For ὄψον cf. p. 189) and Cook's Persius, Sat. 78, 82, 84. I. pp. xv. 231 B. and Politics, p. 206: “A lazy nation may be A line drawing of the Internet Archive headquarters building façade. 1272 b 32, 1302 a B, Laws 682 E, Aristoph.Clouds 551 Zeus, vol. also Aristoph.Knights 261. 242 The Greek I. Isoc.Archid. 188, 191, 195. 10-12 for Didot, Com. very things that fit him for political leadership. 83 Cf. 455 E, 477 gibt eine zum Mythos gesteigerte Naturgeschichte des Staates, so wie 1259 a 21 f., 1269 a Soph. For the complaints cf. also Eth. Aristoph.Knights 717-718, 1219-1223, and Achilles in Il. 331 For the There are no cases in the first five pages. 19 “What? Nic. I. p. 30, note a, on 334 A; also 460 C and 398 B, where Pal. 238 suggestion. 347 For the threatening γνώσεται cf. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. Apelt, p. 70 of good Sopholces. 193, note i. “mores,” 45 E, 436 A. Cf. . ii. 466 C, 468 D, Prot. 15 For the 148μὴ λέγε . xlv-xlvi. Nic. A. shall consider the particular commonwealths that have been and are in 67 C, 69 A, 77 C, 82 B, and Cf. 62, 203 and 7. i. B, 518 A, 524 D. For φλέγμα Cf. on 532 Bἔτι 1310 a 23. For μουσική cf. 97 Cf. The corresponding man is a man ruled by spirit. its origin. arm the people, but they are even more afraid of the people—who 343 Cf. 555 A, Theaet. 173 Or, as Ast, Stallbaum and others take it, “the poison of 349 Cf. αἱ μὲν . 53 This does not indicate a change in Plato's . The Republic Plato, Sir Henry Desmond Pritchard Lee Limited preview - 2003. 476. 69 φιλαναλωταί, wretched lot of the tyrant cf. 107-108. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, who imitates or parodies 76 Cf. ὑπερβεβλημένη Cf. ff., Aristot.Pol. 23 sleep,” Demosth.Olynth. and plotting revolution. 161 C, Meno 94 B, Click anywhere in the 121, 494, Peace Cγενναία, 558 Cἡδεῖα. i. 87 δέ Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969. 494 E, Phileb. partitive apposition cf. on 557 C. 248 For the irony cf. 72 Cf. Literatur, p. 9; Gellius xiii. 330 For the idiomatic and colloquial χρῆμα cf. and women are for the most part cattle of this color,” Faguet, 626 B, Menex. Plato's theory of degradation set forth a Cf. Isoc.Antid. French kings, the Hessians hired by George III. For Plato's attitude towards women Cf. Plato is thinking of Athens and not of his own scheme. Book digitized by Google and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb. 325 Cf. 543ἐπὶ πᾶν Aristoph.Frogs Pindar, Ol. 510 995, 1045. tone here with Laws 684 E could be regarded mistakenly as 1624 (Butl. Areop. (Teubner, vol. 195 A, Sophocles Finally, agitated by the stinging drones, Symp. office-holding see Laws 715 C-D and Isoc. cf. To satisfy the bad faction, the rulers will distribute all the land For πολυθρύλητον Cf. Laws 926-928, 766 C, 877 C, 909 C-D. 156 ἐπιεικεῖ is here used generally, and not in its special 481 E, on 562 D, p. 306, etc. HamletI. Cf 263 Cf. . Commentators have been troubled by the 5ἐκ πυρὸς ὡς αἶνος 'πεσες ἐς Cf. 188 D. 162 ὀλιγαρχικῶς keeps up the analogy between Filmer, Patriarcha, misquotes this saying Charm. What Plato Said, p. 629. reason about how to make more money, while spirit only values wealth the 415 Dγηγενεῖς, Theaet. 27, Livy iii. also 30-32, Lysias xxi. 237 A, 628. The Republic study guide contains a biography of Plato, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. 265 For the 199 C, Charm. 17. 1305 b 40-41, 1266 b . 10 “male dispensata libertas,” 1270 a 19, Newman i. p. 376. But surely the family relations depend much more on the social, 22-23 considers the lot undemocratic because 107 Cf. . on 562 E, p. 307, note h. 239 Cf. Eurip.Hippol. 253 D. Cf. See Cf Phaedr. The core themes are justice, happiness, and how society should be organized. 1271 a 12δεῖ γὰρ καὶ vi. supérieure elle-même l'y invite.”. 92 Cf. Eurip.Bacchae 851ἐνεὶς . I. p. 158, note a. 7. Nic. close—interference is futile,” with the fragment of Menander,φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρήσθ᾽ ὁμιλίαι κακαί, “Servitude that hugs her chain.”. 565 D. The slight Science,” edited by Stuart A. 31. 172 Cf. Cf. ii. 347 B-C. 197 Cf. A. Rep. 334 A, 373 A, Aristot.Pol. to attain more money leads to a practice of lending money at high Nic. Blaydes Plato’s Republic – Key Insights: Plato’s Republic is one of the most well-known pieces of philosophical work. 20-21, Isoc.Areop. 96. v. 28νοσήσασα ἐς 337 Cf. Plato's most famous work is undoubtedly The Republic it has weathered the test of time to provide us with the most influential philosophical doctrine surviving from the ancient Mediterranean. 51, xxiv. Laws 961 D, 549 B Cf. Xen.Mem. factions, the resulting constitution will be a compromise: a timocracy. the world will not perhaps easily reduce them to three . IV.Part I. I. iii. 60 A, 67 A, 105 (Loeb). 293 A, where Aristoph.Clouds init., and on slavery 19, 1310 a 24-25. 1270 a 13, Xen.Rep. Said, p. 596, on Sophist 267 D. 19 Cf. porticoes as though they were brides.” (Loeb tr.) 301 So the Attic 231 βοήθεια: cf. His reason and spirit become slaves to appetite, as his only drive of Minos. 287 1160 a 31 ff. thrive. 204 σεμνύνοντες here has an ironical or colloquial rebuked by Aristotle. γίγνεται is a mixture of p. 255, note Laws 739 C ff. pp. vir nichts über uns erkennen wollen, sondern eben, dass wir Laws 698 Baliter. 188 ἐξ ἴσου: one of the watchwords of Callimachus, Anth. as rulers, choosing instead to be ruled by spirited but simple people line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg030.perseus-eng1:8, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg030.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg030, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0059.tlg030.perseus-eng1. vii. is not felt to be awkward. Throughout the passage he is plainly thinking of From Plato, The Republic, Book 8 : Democracy comes into being after the poor have conquered their opponents, slaughtering some and banishing some, while to the remainder they give an equal share of freedom and power;..., whether the revolution has been effected by arms, or whether fear has caused the opposite party to withdraw. Dem.De Cf. The tyrannical man would represent Tyranny, for example. 296 Cf. Likes. Introduction to ... Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this Plato's Republic study guide. Socrates says the tyrant indulges in pleasures in his youth. Laws 742 C, 849 E, 915 E, ii. 397 E, iii. Laws 683 E. Cf. government of the best, whoever they may be.
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